Bibliography on electrostatic loudspeakers



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Loudspeaker and Headphone Handbook by John Borwick, third edition, 2001 Focal Press, Oxford, ISBN: 0240513711. Contains a mathematically detailed description of ESL operation written by Peter Baxandall, including enough detail about the venerable Quad ESL63 to allow close duplication of the design (if you're so inclined). (Mark Rehorst) Available at
Electroacoustics by F. V. Hunt, Harvard University Press 1954 (USA)  
The Electrostatic Loudspeaker Design Cookbook by Roger Sanders, First Edition, 1995, by Roger Sanders with Barry McClune, This volume is an encyclopedic exploration of the important issues, tradeoffs, and technical questions involved in building the radiating, electrostatically charged panel surfaces which make up the electrostatic loudspeaker. Construction advice for both flat and curved panels is offered, along with plans for the necessary interfaces and drive requirements, and power supply and crossover suggestions. In addition, Sanders provides guidance for building low-frequency systems to supplement the electrostatics for complete frequency coverage. Fully indexed with a thorough, descriptive glossary, parts sources, and a complete bibliography. Available at
Electrostatic Loudspeaker Design and Construction by R. Wagner, This classic, once produced by TAB Books, is now published by Audio Amateur Press. Both a "how-to" book and an informative text on electrostatic speakers which acquaints the reader with their basic operating principles. Important parameters of an electrostatic speaker and how each one affects performance are addressed. Intended for anyone who is not only interested in this type of speaker, but also wants the very best in sound reproduction. Appendix with construction information, index and bibliography included. Available at
Troubleshooting & Repairing Consumer Electronics Without a Schematic (Paperback) by Homer L. Davidson. 461 pages Publisher: McGraw-Hill/TAB Electronics; 3 edition (January 15, 2004) Available at
The Radio Designers Handbook edited by F Langford-Smith. There is a very good section on audio frequency transformer design in This book is invaluable to anyone trying to wind either ESL input or valve amplifier output transformers. (Rob Mackinlay, December 2001) Available at


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Elektrostatische Luidsprekers door E. Fikier. (NL). Aan de hand van dit boek heb ik mijn eerste ESL's gebouwd. Het geeft een stap voor stap beschrijving van de bouw van verschillende type ESL's. Te bestellen bij de erkende boekhandel of bij Elektuur. Sold Out
Alles over het maken van elektrostatische luidsprekers door M. Hortensius:uitgave M. Hortensius, Winterswijk 1986 (NL) Sold Out




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Artikel over het zelfbouwpakket 'Quasar' HiFi-Luidsprekers 10, Elektuur Special. Te bestellen bij Elektuur.  
Artikel over het zelfbouwproject 'Elektrostatic 240' door E. Fikier. HiFi-Luidsprekers 6, Elektuur Special. Te bestellen bij Elektuur.  
Een sterk staaltje zelfbouw door J. v. d. Sluis, Audio & Techniek 5 en 6, 1984 (NL)  


Description Available
An Electrostatic speaker Practical Wireless 1956. An article on building a high frequency unit.
Single-Ended Wide-Range Electrostatic Tweeters With High Efficiency and Improved Dynamic Range by Keith O. Johnson, J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol 12, no 3?, July 1964 (which describes the use of a capacitive pickup to linearize the motion of a single-ended cylindrical electrostatic adjusting the gain of the drive amplifier via a rather crude diode gain control scheme. Describes 2'x6' 135 degree "tweeter" with 1 W output @ 200 Hz - 20% 2nd harmonic distortion which is "...reduced by nearly ten times with pickup electrode and controlled gain amplifier.")(December 2000, provided by John Cox)  
A Wide Range Electrostatic Loudspeaker by C. I. Malme, AES paper, 1958 (USA)  
Telestar Shaped Electrostatic Loudspeaker by R. J. Matthys: Audio Magazine february 1960 (USA)  
The Sanders Electrostatic Amplifier by Roger Sanders: TAA Jan. 1976, pp 12-16  
An Electrostatic Speaker System Part 1 by Roger Sanders:Speaker Builder, Feb.. 1980, pp 20-36
An Electrostatic Speaker System Part 2 by Roger Sanders:Speaker Builder, March 1980, pp 20-27
An Electrostatic Speaker System Part 3 by Roger Sanders:Speaker Builder, April 1980, pp 26-30
A Compact Integrated Electrostatic/Transmission Line Part 1 by Roger Sanders:Speaker Builder, Jan. 1990, pp 30-38,66-67
A Compact Integrated Electrostatic/Transmission Line Part 2 by Roger Sanders:Speaker Builder, Feb.. 1990, pp 36-47,77
A Compact Integrated Electrostatic/Transmission Line Part 3 by Roger Sanders:Speaker Builder, March 1990, pp 38-47
Calculation of the surface pressure on a vibrating circular stretched membrane in free space by J.H. Streng: Source:, no.2, 679-686, 1987  
Sound radiation from circular stretched membranes in free space by J.H. Streng: Source: eng.soc.vol.37, no.3, 107-118, 1989  
Calculation of integrals which occur in the analysis of circula stretched membrane sound radiation by J.H. Streng: Source:, no.3, 1183-1185, 1988  
Charge movements on the stretched membrane in a circular electrostatic push-pull loudspeaker by J.H. Streng: Source: eng.soc. vol.38, no.5, 331-339, 1990  
Sound radiation from a vibrating membrame by J.H. Streng: Source: philips tech.rev.vol.44, no.6, 190-199, 1988  
The Waldron ESL panel by Barry Waldron: Speakerbuilder, 2/90, pp 37-42  
Wide Range Electrostatic Loudspeakers by P.J. Walker (PDF, 980 KB) (Willy Lefebvre, April 2001) These articles appeared in Wireless World 1955 (May to August)
Wide-Range Electrostatic Loudspeaker by P.J. Walker (PDF 1723 KB) (Rolv-Karsten Roenningstad) This article seems to be the same as the article above but published in another magazine. Instead of pictures it has drawings.
New Developments in Electrostatic Loudspeakers by P. J. Walker: AES-paper at the 63Th. Convention, May 15...l8Th. 1979, Los Angeles.  



Selbstbau von Elektrostatischen Breitband Lautsprechern by R. Rennwald: Funkschau, Heft 22, 1963 (D)  
Brettgefluster by M. Sombetzki: Elrad 7 en 8, 1987 (D)  



Dimensionera sjalv din elektrostathogtalare by T. Lock: Radio & Television 12, 1982 (Sweden)  
Elektrostathogtalare inre svar att bygga som man skulle kunnatso by T. Lock: Elektronik varlden 8, 1983 (Sweden)  


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