What electrostatic loudspeakers are
What they are
Electrostatic designs use a single, thin diaphragm suspended in a charged field. The diaphragm has a large surface area and it is extremely thin making it highly sensitive to frequency shifts.p> The diaphragm does not move back and forth very far making it difficult to reproduce low frequency sounds. A large area is needed to produce deep powerful bass. Many electrostatic speakers feature a dynamic woofer and crossover to supplement their bass response and to keep their membranes to acceptable dimensions.
Electrostatic speakers tend to lack some of the dynamic and visceral experience of traditional dynamic speakers. The dynamic speakers can often play louder and lower, but electrostatic designs may be better able to reproduce subtle nuances of music, especially in the mid to high frequencies.
Electrostatic speakers work by placing a thin diaphragm between two metal panels. A current is run through the panels to create a charge. The diaphragm receives a current from the amplifier making it alternately positive and negative. This alteration of polarity combined with the power of the current running through the diaphragm cause it to be attracted to or repelled from the stationary panels. Thus the diaphragm moves and generates vibrations in the air thus creating sound waves.