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  • Dual
  • Crown Plaza, 197-22, Guro-Dong, Guro-Gu, Seoul, Korea
  • Official website
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Equipment[add model]

Dual manufactures or has manufactured the following equipment (click to expand models list):

Dynamic Speakers
Solid State Amplifiers
Tape Decks

General information [contribute]

Namsung web site (2009): Through brand marketing of "DUAL," Namsung establishes network with Best Buy and Wal-Mart as a category player in mobile infotainment division, and expands business in the U.S. A category player is an important business partner that provides an entire product line instead of individual items. As a result, from 2004 to 2007, the company participated in CEA Mobile Electronics Reception as a host company, and received a vendor award in automotive section from Wal-Mart in 2006.

This indicates that DUAL has established a solid foundation in the U.S., especially in multimedia products such as DVD player and navigation. The company ranked top in market share for 3 months after launching, setting a solid ground to be a top brand in future. By cooperating with other competent firms, DUAL carries out a duty to introduce remarkable products to global market. Win-win business begins with DUAL, heading toward a global market.

Partner of Dual (2001):

Jane Morse (March 2, 2004): Alfred Fehrenbacher GmbH is the OEM who builds the Dual Turntables since 1993 with production factilities in St. Georgen and Hungary.


Dual Classics Website (April 2001):

In the beginning....

1900 Christian Steidinger started the "Gerbruder Steidinger" company while manufacturing parts for spring wound motors in St. Georgen, Germany.

1906 Due to technological advances in the St. Georgen company, it was decided to fabricate complete spring wound motor assemblies. 1908 The first DUAL spring wound motor is presented at the Leipzig, Germany fair.

1909 Eighty employees fabricate 80,000 motors per month. The era of the Gramophone is ushered in!

1927 1,500 gramophone motors are leaving the factory daily! The "Gebrueder Steidinger" company changes its name to DUAL. This name change reflected the technology that was developed by Gebrueder Steidinger for use in its gramophones. These gramophones were literally DUAL powered, you could use them outside on "wind up" power, or if you were inside and had electricity available you could just plug it in! It had two motors, one electric and the other spring loaded built in. These motors were sold in the United States under the name of the "Dollar Motor" These Dollar Motors were a huge success in the United States! The DUAL name gains popularity in the United States.

1928 As electric energy became more widespread, the demand for electric motors rose. DUAL produces 10,000 units per month. They market a turntable that has a stamped sheet metal platter with a velvet covering. The first DUAL phono cartridge is produced. With this accomplishment, all the pieces were in place for DUAL to start producing turntables of their own.

1937 DUAL wins a prize at the World's Fair in Paris for their turntable. This starts the line of DUAL turntables to come! DUAL also manufactures wood cabinets and furnishings for sound equipment.

1949 After the wars end, civilian production starts again. DUAL produces two pole electric motors, plus adds idler wheel drive to their turntables. On the first official Electronic Trade Show in Berlin, DUAL unveils the legendary DUAL 1000 model turntable.

1950 DUAL produces 200,000 electric turntable motors. The diameter of their turntable platters was 210mm and weighed 1.2 kg.

1952 DUAL produces their own crystal phono cartridge that have a tracking force of 6 grams.

1956 The first DUAL compact unit is introduced. This has the turntable, amplifier and speakers all in one cabinet. The 1950's are marked as years of great technological advancement in the development of music reproduction.

1958 The introduction of Stereophonic sound! In the spring, DUAL introduces stereo turntables that come with their cartridges.

1959 Turntables with four pole motors and idler wheel drive are introduced. DUAL invents a record stabilizing system where records could be stacked for multiple play without a record stabilizing arm on the top of the record stack. DUAL introduces the 1006 turntable.

1960 Automatic sensing of record size is introduced on the DUAL 1008 turntable.

1963 The first automatic high-fidelity turntable with record changing capability was introduced as the DUAL 1009. This unit was the first to be sold world wide. The precision ball bearing mounted tonearm with a tracking force of only 0.5 grams was introduced. As a result of the lower friction of this new tonearm, Anti-Skating became available.

1965 DUAL introduces the model 1019 turntable with the tonearm set in a universal bearing mount. The Anti-Skating mechanism now tests at near zero skating force! The silicone dampened tonearm lift was introduced and would now become the standard for all future DUAL turntables. With the invention of high-fidelity, the engineers at DUAL set out to set new standards in the reproduction of high-fidelity sound. 1967 Despite the competition from other vendors of audio equipment and also from Color Television, DUAL continues to do well in the marketplace.

1969 Four pole synchronous motors are used and the turntable now starts when the tonearm is taken off the rest. This feature appears on the model 1219, which is introduced. This outrageous technology was responsible for the fact that the operator of the turntable could make "operational errors" in the handling of the unit, but no damage to the turntable itself would occur!

1971 DUAL purchases P+E (Perpetuum-Ebner) a competitor.

1972 DUAL develops the first European Direct Drive Turntable, the DUAL 701. Simultaneous damping of the tonearm resonance from the spring suspension by using a elastic connection. The solution was a two part anti-resonator which is adjusted to a specific frequency. Together they produce a mass to balance the tonearm system.

1973 The official introduction of Quadraphonic sound during the electronic trade show in Berlin, Germany.DUAL introduces a complete line of Quadraphonic equipment.

1974 DUAL completes the development of the first DUAL cassette player, the model C-901 and begins production of this unit. The technical features are: Auto-Reverse, Self Degaussing, Automatic Adjustment of the Double Gap Erase Heads, Horizontal and Vertical Operation, Direct Function Switching, Dolby B Noise Reduction

1975 The first belt drive high-fidelity automatic turntable with the Vario-Belt drive system is introduced. An eight pole motor capable of 78 RPM is also introduced.

1977 The first hi-fi cassette recorder with a front-load system, the DUAL C-819 is introduced. It also had a fader control and could use all three tape types, photoelectric controls. Facilities for mixing from a microphone and other sources were built in. The name "DUAL International" became well respected by both consumers and audio critics world-wide.

1978 The first DUAL Quartz controlled turntable with an Ultra Low Mass Tonearm is introduced. It uses a tuning anti-resonator in order to defeat tonearm resonance and a highly stabilized electronic drive system. It also features strobe illumination using LED's and has the controls on the front of the unit. The first remote controlled high fidelity cassette player is the modern C-839RC. This unit is introduced utilizing the latest in microprocessor technology.

1979 The introduction of the ULM (Ultra Low Mass) tonearm technology. This development resulted in 50% lower mass in the tonearm/cartridge system than other turntables of the time. The advantages to this system are: Better Audible Contact and Better Stylus and Turntable lifetime. The first DUAL Hi-Fidelity receiver with synthesis technology for station scanning and digital frequency display. The "Thermo-Float" technology for DUAL loudspeakers became internationally known. 1980 Continuing innovation leads DUAL through the 1980's. The introduction of the SM line with Amplifier, Tuner, Receiver, Turntable and Cassette products.

1981 At the Berlin Electronics show, DUAL introduces the first CD player with PCM technology.Introduction of the successful Hi-Fi Cassette player C-844. This unit offers two motors, two capstans and two speeds. Introduction of the CD-741 and the Model 728Q with floating chassis. Despite the technological advancements at DUAL, the first signs of loss start to appear. The ability to compete could not be kept alive. Since 1978, the losses occurred due to competition from the far east and is increasing. Intensive efforts to incorporate were not successful.

1982 In January, DUAL declares bankruptcy. Despite this, employees kept the company running to ensure the continuation of the DUAL name. This activity was backed by the DUAL dealer network. Due to extraordinarily tough competition from the far east, DUAL was forced to come up with a new marketing concept. On July 1, 1982, DUAL was purchased by the Thompson-Brandt concern. By doing this, DUAL ensured for a long time the quality of their products and that development of these products would continue. The company now was able to acquire the fine technological knowledge and precision of modern micro-electronics.

1983 In March, DUAL introduces a line of "semi-professional" video equipment.

1984 Introduction of the first Hi-Fi video recorder, the DUAL VR-97

1985 The first CD player made in Germany by DUAL, the CD-40. The CS-5000 turntable makes its debut. The company now is in the "high-end" audio market. This also marks the debut of turntables being marketed as "DUAL by Ortofon" in conjunction with a marketing agreement with Ortofon, the cartridge manufacturer. The CS-5000 is offered with the OPS (Optimal Pivot System) with tracking angle correction (VTR) and a carbon fibre tonearm head. With this agreement with Ortofon and this offering, DUAL created a new market image.

1987 DUAL introduces a new marketing concept and changes themselves into a Hi-Fi specialty company. First time presentation of "high end" products at the Frankfurt, Germany Audiophile Show. Perpetuum-Ebner (P+E) (whose turntable business was previously bought out by DUAL) buys DUAL from Thompson Grand Public, of Paris.

1988 DUAL GmbH becomes affiliated with the German company Schneider Rundfunkwerke AG. The product line was expanded to include television receivers.

1989 At the International Electronics Show in Berlin DUAL presents themselvesas a company specializing in Hi-Fi, Television and Video. DUAL presents the "Studio Concept" line which is intended for consumers interested in the convenient new high technology and excellent reproduction. The new "Audiophile Concept" line comprises of a complete high end system including high quality loudspeakers. High technology is the basis for this new system. All amplifiers of this line are discrete with select components and equipped with the new "Ring-Core" transformers. The new television line, called the "Digital Concept" represents the complete stereo color television line of DUAL and offers digital reception. The chassis is built on the modular building concept, allowing upgrading to future standards. DUAL bases its marketing concept and product lines on the influence of its dealer network.

1989 In addition, DUAL presents the new video concept of it's model VR-4870 a Hi-Fi Stereo Video Cassette unit for PAL systems. Its features include: VPS, HW, Hyperband Tuner with 120 Channels, LCD Display and four video and two audio heads. An independent market research firm shows that DUAL is now the fourth largest producer of Hi-Fidelity equipment destined for German Households.United Audio, the United States distributor of DUAL products disappears without a trace leaving the US dealer network without a source for parts.

1990 A new "high-tech" television with full digital chassis (DTV-2). It can later be equipped with Nicam, D2-Mac, Multi-Scart, PIP (Picture In a Picture) made for the future. The increasing demand from the former DDR (Deutsch Democratische Republic, or East Germany) results in a market gain for DUAL.

1991 At the Berlin Electronics Show, DUAL presents an enlarged studio lineup. All components in this line are remote controlled. The MIDI 3700 is introduced, consisting of a complete collection of high tech single components.

1992 The crown jewel of turntables has been invented in the form of the "Golden Stone". It's a status symbol with a pebble plinth finish. The high quality of the DUAL turntables (made in Germany) has resulted that other European and even Far Eastern turntable manufacturers have decided to use DUAL-built turntables in their own systems. (OEM)

1993 The worldwide recession has resulted in a drop in sales of electronic entertainment equipment. Once more, DUAL must make some economic decisions if they are going to stay in business. DUAL relocates all of their manufacturing (except turntables) from St. Georgen, Germany to Tuerkheim, Germany which is the home base for Schneider Rundfunkwerke AG. This move has economic advantages for DUAL. In the highly competitive single CD market, DUAL succeeds in obtaining a 5% market share. DUAL introduces "Show View", a system where a television viewer can read bar-codes printed in the television listings into the VCR to program what programmes will be video tape recorded.

1995 The Karstadt AG, a department store chain, licenses the DUAL name to be put on their own products. They create a new DUAL logo for these products. This new logo can be viewed at the entry page to this history section. DUAL GmbH and Schneider AG continue until 2001 producing turntables in St. Georgen, Germany for world wide consumption. They continue their OEM business as well. The original DUAL logo is still in use on products made by the St. Georgen firm.

2001 The Schneider AG company declares insolvency and Dual comes to an end. The assets of Dual are purchased by a Chinese company, TCL Holdings for the distribution network. TCL will begin marketing it's own Chinese made products under the Dual name. The original Dual factory in St. Georgen becomes a trade-school.

2002 Namsung Electronics of Heathrow, Florida purchases the rights to the Dual name for the Americas territory and begin marketing their own products under the Dual name.

Hugh (August 26, 2010): Click here for a sale catalogue published by Dual in the late sixties/early seventies.

External links

Alfred Fehrenbacher GmbH
Dual Dennis Rollingers Dual Seite whith Forum etc.
Dual Turntables
Dual Classic Website
Dual Classics Website
Dual Fred Dual turntable enthusiast site

Forum topics on Dual

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